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Clinical Pathways promote evidence based, safe, and high-value care for patients by providing clinical recommendations and standard processes. They are developed by multidisciplinary committees of subject matter experts, informed by methodical review of available evidence and consensus among committee members.

Algorithms associated with this Clinical Pathway: 

Inclusion and exclusion criteria: 


  • Brain abscess 
  • Subdural empyema 
  • Epidural empyema 


  • Meningitis without focal empyema/abscess 
  • Sterile subdural effusions 
  • Foreign body infections 
  • Post-surgical intracranial infections 

Committee members involved in the development: 

  • C. Kaufman, MD, FAANS | Pediatric Neurosurgeon 
  • R. El Feghaly, MD, MSCI | Infectious Diseases 
  • A. Myers, MD, MPH | Director, Division of Infectious Diseases 

Publication dates: 

  • Revision date: July 2023
  • Next expected revision date: July 2026 

Concerns with content: 

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These clinical pathways do not establish a standard of care to be followed in every case. It is recognized that each case is different and those individuals involved in providing health care are expected to use their judgment in determining what is in the best interests of the patient based on the circumstances existing at the time. It is impossible to anticipate all possible situations that may exist and to prepare pathways for each. Accordingly these pathways should guide care with the understanding that departures from them may be required at times.