Kernicterus Research

Peer-Reviewed Articles

Shapiro, S. M. Chronic bilirubin encephalopathy: diagnosis and outcome. Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 15: 157-163, 2010, PMID: 20116355.

  • Description of the types and subtypes of kernicterus – classical, auditory-predominant and motor-predominant kernicterus, and subtle kernicterus or BIND.
Shapiro, S.M., Popelka, G.R., Auditory impairment in infants at risk for bilirubin induced neurologic dysfunction (BIND), Seminars in Perinatology, Jun; 35(3):162-170, 2011. PMID: 21641490

Shapiro SM, Bhutani VK, Johnson L. Hyperbilirubinemia and kernicterus. Clinics in Perinatology 2006;33(2):387-410.

Management of hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn infant 35 or more weeks of gestation. Pediatrics 2004;114(1):297-316.
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines.
Shapiro SM. Definition of the clinical spectrum of kernicterus and bilirubin-induced neurologic dysfunction (BIND). Journal of Perinatology 2005;25(1):54-9. 
  • Initial definitions of kernicterus and BIND.
Shapiro SM. Bilirubin toxicity in the developing nervous system. Pediatric Neurology 2003;29(5):410-21.


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